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发布于:2017-8-6 22:43:57  访问:118 次 回复:0 篇
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Electronic Test And Measurement Equipment - Why Environmental Testing Equipment Is Used?
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Environmental pollution, particularly in land fills, from discarded electronic equipment (e-waste) or "waste electrical and electronic equipment" (WEEE), has been an increasing concern worldwide.
Pollution occurs due to leakage of hazardous materials contained in the discarded equipment. The European Union has passed two related regulations to improve e-waste management and to limit the presence of hazardous materials in the waste.
One is the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive 2002/95/EC (popularly called the Lead free RoHS) which limits the presence of six hazardous materials in electrical and electronic equipment. The other is the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive 2002/96/EC.
The WEEE directive aims at minimization of the impact of e-waste on the environment, by increasing re-use and recycling and reducing the amount of WEEE going to landfills. EU members are required to incorporate the provisions of both the RoHS and the WEEE are directives into their individual legislations.
Effective August 13, 2005, the WEEE directive, excludes equipment related to state security, arms and ammunition and war materials However it does cover thirteen categories of e-waste:
1. Large household appliances - excludes ODS fridges/freezers
2. Small household appliances (e.g. toaster, kettle, vacuum cleaner)
3. IT and telecommunications equipment - excludes CRTs
4. Consumer equipment (e.g. videos, radio, hi-fi) - excludes CRTs
5. Lighting equipment - excluding flourescent tubes
6. Electrical and electronic tools (e.g. drills, saws, sewing machines)
7. Toys, leisure and sports equipment (e.g. electric trains, video games)
8. Medical Devices - excludes contaminated items
9. Monitoring and control instruments (e.g. smoke detector, thermostats)
10. Automatic dispensers (e.g. vending machines)
11. Cooling equipment including category 10 devices with cooling
12. Display equipment (CRTs) including plasma and LCD
13. Gas discharge lamps (e.g. fluorescent tubes)
The WEEE Directive is based on article 175 of the European Commission (EC) Treaty which established the European Union. This directive makes producers responsible for financing the collection, treatment, and recovery of waste electrical and electronic equipment.
It also seeks to oblige distributors to allow consumers to return their waste equipment free of charge. This provision is based on the precept that the polluter should pay and applies irrespective of the selling technique, including distance selling.
Another aspect is the encouragement of product designs that facilitate dismantling and recovery. Producers are also required to provide reuse and treatment information on their products. This is to facilitate the reuse of components and to ensure the correct and environmentally sound treatment of WEEE, including maintenance, upgrade, refurbishment and recycling.
EU member states are empowered to include additional products to the WEEE directive.
There are also provisions for and minimum standards for authorized collection and recycling sites. The directive also has certain labeling requirements such as the name of the producer, date code and a "Do Not Landfill` mark which consists of a crossed out wheel bin with a bar underneath indicating that the product was placed on the market after August 13, 2005.
The European Community has taken the lead on environmental issues and often, a role model for other nations. Many nations including the United States and China are considering WEEE legislation. The federal US legislation is expected to be in line with the EU WEEE. However, the draft legislation of the China WEEE, whose details are still sketchy, does not appear to be so. The China WEEE, when it comes, is likely to pose serious challenges for suppliers.
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